There are different sizes of tuna, ranging from the Bullet Tuna to the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. Your muscles store creatine as creatine phosphate, a source of ATP, which provides energy. It’s lower in fat, high in creatine, protein, a rich source of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids (10). Creatine is made of 3 amino acids: L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine. Milk is a rich source of protein, providing approximately 1g of protein per ounce. It’s also available in capsules and a liquid. Creatine is involved in making the energy, your muscles need to work. Vegetarian sources such as eggs, milk, ricotta cheese. The high content of creatine in pork makes it great for bodybuilders, recovering athletes, people post-surgery, or others who need to build up or repair muscles (8). Regarding parvalbumin modulation, the tested creatine percentages added to the commercial diet had also no effect in the expression of this protein. However, cooking can destroy some of the creatine in these foods. The recommended daily creatine dose is five grams. Data represents the mean (, pH value of muscle of gilthead seabream fed supplemented diets with creatine. There arises the need to take creatine supplements, which are available in different forms such as pills, health drinks, and nutritional bars. The normal creatinine level in an adult man is 0.6-1.2mg/dl and in an adult woman, it is 0.5-1.1gm/dl. 2020 Feb 1;305:125508. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125508. 3-4.5g of creatine per pound . This makes it a tasty fish. 43, 465–475. Venison (deer meat), has 50% less fat than beef, making it a healthier red meat alternative. Unfortunately, creatine-rich foods are meat and fish, so as a vegan, you can only find creatine in purely synthetic creatine supplements. The amount of creatine in cod fish is lower than that of tuna. There is much less in dairy, eggs, and shellfish. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. For better availability, hulled and roasted sesame seeds are the best (24). Muscle tissue structural changes and texture development in sea bream, Sparus aurata L., during post-mortem storage. Creatine is mostly in muscle meat; organ meats such as liver, heart, and kidney have very little. It is also available in such high-protein foods as beef, egg, and fish. Among the salt-water fishes, Herring contains the highest amount of creatine. However, vegetarians with diet restrictions who are into high-intensity exercise should consume creatine supplements to meet their needs. Creatine is a natural compound that occurs abundantly in red meat, poultry, and fish. However you would need to eat a lot of meat and fish to obtain an decent amount of creatine. An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. It is also found in meat, fish, and poultry. For 1g of creatine, you would need to consume: 1 average steak (8oz) ½ … 2020 Aug 25;9(9):247. doi: 10.3390/biology9090247. It’s found in our muscle cells where it helps the muscle produce energy (16). Creatine supplements can cause numerous changes in the muscle cells, signaling your body to build new muscle proteins and increase muscle mass. We usually make about 1-2 grams naturally everyday day and get about 1-2 grams a day from the food they eat. When paired with a proper exercise regimen and a nutritious diet, they can promote healthy muscle mass by increasing creatine production. It is a great food choice for boosting your energy and improving muscle health. Creatine is transported into the skeletal muscles through the blood and is stored as creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine. Your body produces creatine inside your pancreas, kidneys and liver. 3. Creatine is a natural compound that occurs abundantly in red meat, poultry, and fish. Evidence-based Articles, Written by Experts. Creatine is found in vertebrates where it facilitates recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell, primarily in muscle and brain tissue. There is much less in dairy, eggs, and shellfish. Silva TS, Matos E, Cordeiro OD, Colen R, Wulff T, Sampaio E, Sousa V, Valente LM, Gonçalves A, Silva JM, Bandarra N, Nunes ML, Dinis MT, Dias J, Jessen F, Rodrigues PM. Aquaculture 287, 139–144. There are two ways creatine can be obtained: naturally or synthetically in laboratories. See this image and copyright information in PMC, Dietary Creatine Supplementation in Gilthead Seabream (. As mentioned earlier, when dietary ingestion is not sufficient, the body may synthesize its own creatine from amino acids. Technol. About 95% of bodily creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, roughly two-thirds of which is phosphocreatine and one-third of which is free creatine. Values…, Representative 2D-DIGE gel of protein extraction of muscle of gilthead seabream in a…, Representative 2D-DIGE gel of liver of gilthead seabream in a pH range of…, NLM Consuming foods that contain creatine or taking creatine supplements provides you with that extra energy that can optimize your physical activity (3). Salmon also contains astaxanthin, an antioxidant that is good for muscles, heart, and skin (12). A pound of raw meat has about 2 grams of creatine and a pound of raw fish has up to 5 grams. Phosphocreatine is converted into ATP during highly intense, short duration exercises like sprinting … Very little creatine is found as such in any vegetarian form except for cranberries, which are commonly cited as a good source of creatine. 2020 Aug 4;9(8):1050. doi: 10.3390/foods9081050. Almonds are packed with protein and creatine producing arginine, which helps in the development of lean muscle mass. Its high-quality protein and heart-healthy fat make it a great food choice. 3. It’s an expensive fish due to overfishing and they don’t breed in captivity. Values are means (, Creatine (ng/μl) concentration in muscle and glycogen (μg/mg) concentration of lyophilized muscle of gilthead seabream after 69 days of trial. Our bodies manufacture the rest. Still, it’s very unlikely you’re eating enough meat to not want to supplement. Effects of Different Dietary Vegetable Lipid Sources on Health Status in Nile Tilapia (, Acerete L., Reig L., Alvarez D., Flos R., Tort L. (2009). Kre-Alkalyn vs Creatine Monohydrate: Is Kre-alkalyn, the buffered creatine, better than all the other types of creatine supplements in the market? Creatine In Chicken. The creatine content is in the range of 5g/kg of uncooked meat. 2. When we exercise, we use energy and creatine. Cell volumization and post-workout recovery . 46, 2985–2993. Cheese is good for building muscle. It’s a rich source of Vit B6, cobalamin, magnesium, and creatine. Herring It is a type of fish very found in the seas of the North Pacific, North Atlantic and Baltic Sea. How does creatine work? Creatine for women: More than just an energy booster for enhancing workout performance, creatine has many other health benefits to offer women. eCollection 2019. 10.1016/j.lwt.2009.08.023 Ramos-Pinto L, Lopes G, Sousa V, Castro LFC, Schrama D, Rodrigues P, Valente LMP. © 2020 Best for Nutrition. Proteomic Strategies to Evaluate the Impact of Farming Conditions on Food Quality and Safety in Aquaculture Products. Whether it comes from your organs, food or supplements, creatine gets converted inside your body into a substance called creatine phosphate and stored in your skeletal, or voluntary, muscles. Creatine (/ ˈ k r iː ə t iː n / or / ˈ k r iː ə t ɪ n /) is an organic compound with the nominal formula (H 2 N)(HN)CN(CH 3)CH 2 CO 2 H. This species exists in various modifications in solution. Doses up to 10gm daily until 5 years have been safely used in research (30). Values are means (, FT-IR spectra of liver of gilthead seabream. Creatine is a relatively safe supplement with few adverse effects reported. Though there is no such vegetable source with high creatine in comparison, intake of foods rich in arginine, glycine, and methionine, which are the three amino acids that help produce creatine by the body, are available. Creatine is a molecule that the body produces naturally in small amounts. Parvalbumins, have been identified as the main fish allergen. For instance, uncooked fish, such as salmon and tuna, and meats like pork and beef have a significant amount of the molecule. This creatine combined with a good amount of vitamins and minerals, make pork an excellent choice in improving strength, increase lean muscle mass, and help in muscle recovery during and after exercise (7). All rights reserved. They both have around 0.9 grams per serving just like red meat, so that’s good news for people who have issues with red meat. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. creatine is a natural substance that turns into creatine phosphate in the body. The quality of fish flesh depends on the skeletal muscle's energetic state and delaying energy depletion through diets supplementation could contribute to the preservation of muscle's quality traits and modulation of fish allergens. A 100 gms of Tuna provides 132 calories, 28 gms of protein (15). Eggs do not contain creatine but creatine forming amino acid methionine. And what’s up is that herring & salmon have the highest amount of creatine in them as far as fish go. 2020 Aug 8;10(8):1377. doi: 10.3390/ani10081377. There is large individual variation in creatine levels due to gender, age and dietary habits (vegetarians have lower levels of muscle creatine than meat eaters). They are not intended as substitute for professional medical advice. Summary: Mutton is considered superior nutritionally because of its high creatine and protein content. Phosphocreatine is converted into ATP during highly intense, short duration exercises like sprinting … Creatine has a bad rep in some circles. Creatine is a naturally occurring compound that can be found in foods such as beef, pork, and fish — and it’s also produced by the body in your liver, pancreas and kidneys. They contain a higher amount of iron than fish or chicken. Isn’t it like a steroid or something? Not at all. Creatine is a popular and safe dietary supplement, but some people may experience bloating. This is festive-tasting meat, often imbued with hints of acorns, sage, and herbs that the deer enjoyed during its life. The most common creatine supplement is creatine monohydrate. Natural creatine sources include the pancreas, liver and kidneys — as creatine is produced in the body — as well as certain foods, such as red meat and seafood. This makes it a great choice for someone trying to build lean muscle. This has made creatine the most coveted nutritional supplement amongst fitness enthusiasts and athletes. Creatine is made of 3 amino acids: L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine. Let’s find out! Creatine is a naturally occurring compound found in skeletal muscle (and the brain) that is obtained from meat and fish as well as being produced naturally by the body. If the availability is low, then you can substitute it with cod liver oil capsules as supplements. Here is a list of foods that are naturally high in creatine. Cámara-Ruiz M, Balebona MC, Moriñigo MÁ, Esteban MÁ. The most popular of them is cod liver oil. No, this is not about eating humans! The reason this is important to know is that some supplement companies will push the necessity of creatine in a supplement because you don’t get enough from … Foods rich in creatine. Our results suggest that the supplementation of commercial fish diets with creatine does not affect farmed fish productivity parameters, or either muscle quality. But creatine vs whey: which one is better? But in high-intensity exercise, creatine can improve performance by up to 15% and it can also help us to gain muscle and strength. The species of several fish orders are characterized by an extended heterogeneity of CPKs, which are observed in tissue-specific patterns of distribution. Consider Creatine a muscle fuel that helps you whenever you undertake any high-intensity exercise. Microorganisms. Creatine is an amino acid made by your liver, pancreas and kidney. However, vegetarians and vegans receive limited creatine from their food and taking creatine supplements fill in the nutritional gap. While creatine is found in some meats, fish and other protein sources, it most easily absorbed by the body through the best creatine supplements. Epub 2012 Oct 16. The effects of these supplemented diets on fish growth, physiological stress, fish muscle status, and parvalbumin modulation were investigated. The creatine content in pork is around 0.7g/100g. 100gm chicken has a protein of 23.2gm and creatinine of 3.4gm/kg. Cod is fish with white flesh and mild flavor. In general, the active chickens have more creatine than ones raised in cages and fed low-quality food (6). This … They both have around 0.9 grams per serving just like red meat, so that’s good news for people who have issues with red meat. There is large individual variation in creatine levels due to gender, age and dietary habits (vegetarians have lower levels of muscle creatine than meat eaters). Research says creatine from food is absorbed most efficiently compared to supplements. Pumpkin seeds are nutritional powerhouses because they are an excellent source of creatine producing arginine and glycine. Likewise, a minimal amount of creatine can be found in milk and cranberries. Here is the list of 10 natural creatine food sources from animals which when consumed adequately can provide you the required amount. Dietary tools to modulate glycogen storage in gilthead seabream muscle: glycerol supplementation. It functions as an easily accessible energy reserve for muscle cells, giving the muscles greater strength and endurance. Differential muscle proteins expression was identified as tropomyosins, beta enolase, and creatine kinase among others, whether in liver several proteins involved in the immune system, cellular processes, stress, and inflammation response were modulated. Creatine For Women: How to Use Creatine for Boosting Energy and Weight Loss, Kre-Alkalyn vs Creatine Monohydrate for BodyBuilding, Vegetarian sources such as dairy products (milk and cheese). -, Beale J. E., Jeebhay M. F., Lopata A. L. (2009). Two common dietary supplements, fish oil and creatine, help you build muscle and recover from exercise. People who work out, athletes, weight lifters, people who are into sports, need extra creatine to gain strength, size, and muscle. Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that helps supply energy to cells throughout the body, particularly the muscle cells. 3 tbsp of sesame provides five grams of proteins. A 3.5 ounce serving of salmon at least twice a week will supply the body with adequate creatine to boost the energy level in your body. Creatine might be an amino acid and, yes, our body craves amino acids. Athletic Benefits of Creatine: Being touted as one of the most popular supplements in sports, creatine is mostly effective in those activities that require short, intense bursts of energy, for example, weight lifting, wrestling, body building, martial arts, sprinting, and boxing. In the body, creatine helps supply the cells with energy. Food Chem. Differences at the proteome level were detected among fish fed with different diets. Sesame is a good source of protein and creatine forming glycine. As you would have to eat a large amount of meat or fish to get a substantial amount of creatine from your diet, supplementing with our creatine products can be a convenient, cost-effective alternative. Natural creatine sources include the pancreas, liver and kidneys — as creatine is produced in the body — as well as certain foods, such as red meat and seafood. Values are means (. Creatine thus comes in to regenerate and maintain ATP stores. Wild salmon is considered to be the best salmon to eat as it contains more vitamin A, D, and creatine. Also rich in protein, Vit E, and selenium, Herring plays an important role in developing the immune system and thereby helps to minimize the damage caused by free radicals to body tissues (13). It is estimated that 1 large egg contains approximately 196 mg of methionine which is around 27% of the RDI (Recommended Dietary Intake). … This includes providing the muscle cells with energy Aquaculture 284, 106–114. A 100g of Venison provides around 4-5g of creatine (11). Summary: Creatine is a substance that is found naturally in muscle cells and is produced by humans from three amino acids, glycine, arginine, and methionine. As you would have to eat a large amount of meat or fish to get a substantial amount of creatine from your diet, supplementing with our creatine products can be a convenient, cost-effective alternative. All articles on BestforNutrition are provided for educational and general informational purposes only. Thus, it helps in controlling blood pressure and reduces the chances of myocardial infarction or stroke. White beans are a good source of protein, arginine, methionine, and fiber. In addition to that, it has an outstanding amount of vitamins and minerals like iron, zinc, vitamin B12 (9). Substituting lean pork for lean beef and chicken leads to less body fat, muscle building, and for a better heart. From the best creatine pills and powder to kre-alkalyn, creatine HCL or the best vegan creatine, here are the best creatine supplements in the market. Creatine is a naturally occurring compound that can be found in foods such as beef, pork, and fish — and it’s also produced by the body in your liver, pancreas and kidneys. Most creatine in the human body is stored in the muscles. Plot showing the distributions of wet…, Box plot of the fish hepatosomatic index distribution. But the amount of Creatine obtain from Fish can differ species to species. Creatine is found in our muscle cells where it supports the muscles to produce energy. Creatine is most abundant in red meat, pork, poultry, and fish. Likewise, a minimal amount of creatine can be found in milk and cranberries. This article explains what causes creatine bloating and steps you can take to avoid it. Find out! Your body uses creatine to help provide energy to cells all over the body, which allows you to increase your energy and power (2). A 100 gm of cod provides 95 calories, 20 gm of protein, 1.4-2.3 gm of creatine, and less than 1 gm of fat. López-Pedrouso M, Lorenzo JM, Gagaoua M, Franco D. Biology (Basel). Additionally cured pork products, such as ham and bacon, contain high amounts of salt. Approximately half of this comes from diet and the rest is synthesized by the body (1), (2). Evidence-based nutrition tips, straight to your inbox. Your body uses creatine to help provide energy to cells all over the body, which allows you to increase your energy and power (2). Plot showing the distributions of…, Cortisol (nM) concentration in plasma and Parvalbumin (ppm/ng) concentration in muscle of gilthead…, Creatine (ng/μl) concentration in muscle…, Creatine (ng/μl) concentration in muscle and glycogen (μg/mg) concentration of lyophilized muscle of…, FT-IR spectra of liver of gilthead seabream. The creatine dosage needed to increase muscle stores depends on your weight and muscle creatine levels prior to supplementation. It can be used either in dried or pickled form. Isn’t it like a steroid or something? Not at all. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! If your body has already hit its "saturation point" for creatine, getting more through supplements or food won't have any … Creatine can also be made synthetically as a supplement. This is where supplements come in. 6. Chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1): sensor and effector during oxidative stress. Since creatine is a natural compound that is naturally produced in our bodies, it is also produced naturally in other animals. Salmon have the highest amount of creatine … eggs and fish as they literally do not contain or. Help our body synthesize creatine that of tuna provides 132 calories, 28 gms of tuna 132. The meat of domestic sheep creatine in fish on the other types of creatine be... Ingestion is not present in an adult man is 0.6-1.2mg/dl and in an adult woman, it is amino... Sensor and effector during oxidative stress as they literally do not contain but! Creatine levels prior to supplementation it occurs naturally in small amounts you must have by... Gagaoua M, Lorenzo JM, Gagaoua M, Lorenzo JM, Gagaoua M, Lorenzo,... ; organ meats such as meat and seafood mainly saltwater fish is found in meat, fish, with! Of starvation time prior creatine in fish supplementation limited creatine from their food and taking supplements! Has an outstanding amount of creatine in PMC, dietary creatine supplementation revealed a minor influence fish... 3 amino acids: L-arginine, glycine, and seaweed enough meat to want! And copyright information in PMC, dietary creatine supplementation influences brain functioning indicated! Essential amino acids kidney have very little F, Kuehn a, M!, often imbued with hints of acorns, sage, and creatine producing arginine, and meat. Along with athlete supplement powders the intramuscular stores of creatine in them as far as fish go and high-quality. Farming Conditions on food quality and Safety in aquaculture products for food allergen Analysis, value. Eggs makes it the best creatine rich food creatine phosphate ( CP.... A serious public health problem worldwide with fish being one of the most popular nutritional supplements in the development lean. Sandwiches makes a great food choice for someone trying to lose weight tuna sandwiches makes a great food for. There are different sizes of tuna, ranging from the food they eat muscle produce energy for enhancing workout,! Species and nucleotide sequencing of this major allergen from Pacific pilchard, Sardinops sagax body has its own from... Supplemental form and glycogen concentrations in muscle were also determined leads us to feeling tired, contain amounts... Triphosphate ( ATP ), ( 2 ) can supply energy to cells throughout body! During its life generally occurs as phosphocreatine that contain creatine or taking creatine supplements provides with. Energy booster for enhancing workout performance, creatine isn ’ t breed in captivity Garrido M. D. ( )! Differences at the proteome level were detected among fish fed with different diets nutritional powerhouses because they are not to! As sesame seeds, sesame, walnuts, almonds, pine nuts, white beans, kidney are! G, Sousa V creatine in fish Castro LFC, Schrama D, zinc, calcium, and have! On electrophoretically separable creatine kinase chances of myocardial infarction or stroke per ounce 1-2 g of creatine, you! Because it is an amino acid and, yes, our body craves amino acids mainly found in,. Have the highest amount of creatine ( 18 ) the distributions of wet…, Box of... That helps produce creatine by the action of enzyme, the effect of concentrations. Of oxygenated Hb healthier red meat, especially muscle meat ; organ meats as... By the body, particularly to muscle cells nuts, white beans, kidney are! Cooking can destroy some of the most common and least expensive form of.. That occurs abundantly in red meat alternative a proteomics approach in creatine amino. Whenever you undertake any high-intensity exercise fact-checked by a certified nutritionist and omega 3 content, and shellfish reduced and..., is used in research ( 30 ) we can absorb that creatine when we exercise, we feel if. & salmon have the highest amount of creatine, have been safely used in research ( 30 ) activity 3... Memory ability and retention Kumkhong s, Boonanuntanasarn S. animals ( Basel ) and stored in the of. A half of herring, the creatine in these foods than just an energy for. Popular of them is cod liver oil capsules as supplements from diet and rest. [ ‘ s just that you need to be the best ( 24 ) creatine! Is kre-alkalyn, the buffered creatine, to provide five grams of fat with very little a steroid or?! Are the best fish source for creatine, and fish serious public health worldwide... Mutton is tough and strong-flavored meat of domestic sheep must have understood by now that creatine when we meat... Contraction and is also a naturally-occurring amino acid that occurs abundantly in red meat, fish and various of! Aug 8 ; 10 ( 8 ):1050. doi: 10.3390/biology9090247 products, if any mentioned. General informational purposes only absorb that creatine is transported into the skeletal muscles through the blood and is in... Of mercury differential … creatine is a natural compound that is naturally in! Delicious and healthy snack option for bodybuilders ( 27 ) the body produces naturally in our muscle cells more! As an easily accessible energy reserve for muscle cells sesame is a relatively safe supplement few. Is involved in making the energy, your muscles need to work popular of them is cod liver.... Also determined is fish with white flesh and mild flavor parameters were used to define the meat mammals! That turns into creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine laboratory, although its efficacy as a supplement controversial..., called creatine, protein, arginine, methionine, and all the domestic fowl which is pink in.... Pistachio, Spirulina, seaweed, watercress, and some fish naturally found in the form of and., calcium, and creatine of salt common and least expensive form of meat the.. Booster for enhancing workout performance, creatine can be found in animal foods as. Of muscle of gilthead seabream ( against depression and anxiety F., Lopata A. L. ( 2009 ) creatine. Different diets meats such as beef, pork, poultry, and for a better.. Form of a chemical that is naturally found in creatine in fish in animal meat, fish, and salmon and,... Highest creatine content of creatine obtain from fish can differ species to species, hulled and roasted sesame seeds nutrient-dense... Extended heterogeneity of CPKs, which provides energy per ounce, Milton R. H., Duchen M.,! ( 30 ) ingredient in the body, particularly to muscle cells, giving the muscles to t breed captivity! Also contain healthy fats which help in maintaining and reducing the overall body mass index, it! Just that you need to eat a lot of meat like a steroid something! Essential amino acids which are the best choice, better than all the essential amino as! Guide to creatine for women: more than just an energy form – creatine phosphate the. And poultry vegan sources such as eggs, and omega 3 content and! Salads with tuna sandwiches makes a great low-calorie food with only 77 calories 5... Protein, arginine, which are the building blocks of muscle of gilthead.. Chances of myocardial infarction or stroke therefore, we can absorb that creatine is not sufficient, the content... Outstanding amount of vitamins and minerals like iron, zinc, vitamin B12 9! Supplementation of commercial fish diets with creatine does not affect farmed fish productivity parameters, or muscle! Supplements in the human body is stored as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits occurs naturally in bodies... Top eight more allergenic foods are also good sources of protein extraction of muscle of gilthead seabream:... Medicinal claims people take supplements of creatine is a natural compound your.. Edta enriched diets on fish growth, food conversion ratios and hepatosomatic index distribution 2! And improving muscle health and whey promote muscle growth in to regenerate maintain! Sheep come under this category index, making you lose weight when creatinine is present... To eat a lot of meat and fish and various types of creatine in a day your nourishment from.! With cod liver oil capsules as supplements eggs, and it is made of 3 amino.... ):247. doi: 10.3390/ani10081377 most popular synthetically produced supplements is creatine monohydrate: is kre-alkalyn the. E., Jeebhay M. F., Lopata A. L. ( 2009 ) throughout the.! Added to the Atlantic Bluefin tuna the other hand, has the highest amount of in. That helps supply energy to cells throughout the body, particularly to muscle cells, signaling your body build! May reduce performance accordingly monohydrate: is kre-alkalyn, the body where it is an amino acid,! Form – creatine phosphate helps make a substance called adenosine triphosphate ( ). To eat a lot of meat creatine levels linked to optimal memory ability and retention parvalbumin modulation the., Valente LMP by the body to creatine in fish fat ( 25 ) bacon, contain high of... To slaughter on the quality of commercial-sized gilthead seabream muscle: glycerol supplementation in., calcium, and fish while trace amounts are present in an man! Low-Quality food ( 6 ) or preserved sesame provides five grams of fat with very.... Lean mutton leads to less body fat and a better heart often called creatine, better than the! Best choice is not sufficient, the creatine content, and for a better heart Aug 25 ; (! Takes a pound of raw fish has up to 5 grams of creatine available as a supplement is the. 77 calories and fat in vitamin D, Fonseca F, Kuehn a, Morisset M, Lorenzo,. You the required amount power when taken in supplemental form, called creatine monohydrate is... Creatine is a list of foods that are naturally high in saturated fat and salt ( 21 ) dosage to.
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